Annotated Bibliography 1

Zipf, Catherine. “The Architecture of American Slavery: Teaching the Black    Lives Matter Movement to Architects.” Radical Teacher, no. 106, Fall2016, pp.  97-105.

In this article, Catherine discusses the broad teaches of The BLM or (Black Lives Matter)  movement and how it correlated to her studies of “The Architecture of American Slavery” at a engaging seminar at Roger Williams University.  She argues that her studies showed that the involvement and evolution of “The Architecture of American Slavery” by tying in the new principles of the Black Lives Matter Movement. She uses different articles and other research to prove that her course would benefit the understanding of slavery, its architecture, and how it is used today. This article will help show me the many connections of the modern Black Lives Matter campaign to the early and important different slavery artifacts that Catherine discovered in her teaching at the seminar.

Annotated Bibliography Draft

  • Zipf, Catherine. “The Architecture of American Slavery: Teaching the Black Lives Matter Movement to Architects.” Radical Teacher, no. 106, Fall2016, pp. 97-105. EBSCOhost,

In this article, Catherine discusses the broad teaches of The BLM or (Black Lives Matter) movement and how it correlated to her studies of “The Architecture of American Slavery” at a engaging seminar at Roger Williams University. She argues that her studies showed that the involvement and evolution of “The Architecture of American Slavery” by tying in the new principles of the Black Lives Matter Movement. She uses different articles and other research to prove that her course would benefit the understanding of slavery, its architecture, and how it is used today. This article will help show me the many connections of the modern Black Lives Matter campaign to the early and important different slavery artifacts that Catherine discovered in her teaching at the seminar.

  •  Davis, Kimberly. “Black Architects: Embracing and Defining Culture.” Ebony, vol. 60, no. 12, Oct. 2005, pp. 108-114. EBSCOhost,

In this article, Kimberly emphasized the beauty of African American cultures by showing how people embrace it and define it. Kimberly Davis argues that there is a huge lack in the architects in the African American community. She makes and uses demands for there to be more involvement and advancement in this culture today in modern times. This article will help me understand the teachings of the education that is taught in African American culture.

  •  McGuigan, Cathleen. “Architecture and the History of Race: The Story of the African American Record, vol. 204, no. 10, Oct. 2016, p. 21. EBSCOhost,

In this article Cathleen Mcguigan, uses her own personal experience of growing up African American to show us how it correlated to the built environment. She includes a lot of detailed information about how the African American culture was used in the built environment today, and what is not today. She provides the audience with detailed examples and situations that surfaced the Africa American community. This article helps provide me with knowledge from a actual primary source, due from all this information coming from her own past experiences. This also showed me that she used her past experience to connect not only being black but also a mean of just being American.

  •  Czarnecki, John. “Illuminating a Culture through Architecture.” Contract, vol. 57, no. 8, Oct. 2016, p. 18. EBSCOhost,

In this article, John discusses the one and only Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, which is located in Washington. He shows the audience that there are a lot of triumph in forms of architects and in forms of many designs that brings the building to life. He also includes that the museum is a place where many African American go to understand the history of the culture and embrace the beautiful historic artifacts. This article will help me and others know where some of the most historic artifacts and designs are and what the importance is of them.

  •  Nelson, Louis P. “The Architectures of Black Identity: Buildings, Slavery, and Freedom in the Caribbean and the American South.” Winterthur Portfolio, vol. 45, no. 2, Summer, pp. 177-193. EBSCOhost,

In this article, Louis Nelson takes a major focus on the historic architecture in Jamaica that relates to African American culture and architecture. Louis uses many pictures in the article to visually prove to us the resemblance. He shows us how many of the architects are built and how they are similar to other culture but African American culture relates to it the most. This article helps me make many connections to the Parting Ways article because of the resemblance that both articles found in architects from African American cultures.

Personal Site Response 2

Visiting the Kings Center I noticed a lot of things personally from the short time that I was there and from the previous times that I have visited this space. I was able to note a lot of different changes from previous time that I have been there from the two-hour session I encountered at The Kings Center on Sunday February 26th, 2017. There are many ways in which I encountered many thoughts from the previous times I was there until my two hour session on Sunday.


Growing up my mother would take my sister and I to the Kings Center every Martin Luther King holiday to learn our history and to make sure that we were up to date with our knowledge there.  I was around the age of 7 and my sister was 10 years old when we made our first visits there. All throughout elementary school, middle school, and some high school till around 9th grade my mother would take us faithfully down to the Kings Center every Martin Luther king holiday. Although it has been like four or five years since my visit to this space I had many thoughts. Some of my many thoughts were questions. These questions were, “Has anything changed?” “ Is it still at  the same location?” “Will there be more things added to the space?” “ Will the admission still be free?” Although I had a lot more questions my MAIN question was “Has anything changed?”


Once arrived bright and early Sunday afternoon, I began to notice a huge change form just the walk there. The main change I noticed was the group of people that I saw within the space. For instance, from prior visits all I really ever saw at the site were people of African American descent. There were hardly any other people at the space that were Caucasians, Asians, and other nationalities and other descents. As I was walking up Auburn Avenue past Ebanizer Church I saw a large diversity of people exploring all aspects of The Kings Center and other historical sites located across the street from this site. There were all kinds of people learning the history of The Civil Rights Movement and Dr. Kings’ lasting long legacy. Not only that but the site of the grave stock had changed. From the last time that I was there was only one grave stock out in the middle of the water on the platform, which was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr’s. Due to my recent visit, I noticed that Correta Scott was also added to this remarkable grave stock.  I have been shocked to have found out that she was added and it questioned my thoughts of what else could have been added inside of the King Center. Once I entered the Kings Center I did notice some changes like recent documents that have been added with in the space. But in all reality, not much has changed inside of the Kings Center but a few more added documents.


As for my other questions : “ Is it still at the same location?” yes. “Will there be more things added to the space?” , yes the Correta Scott King grave stock and addition of new documents of achievement. “ Will the admission still be free? , yes!


In conclusion, I had many thoughts about this space coming in, due to prior knowledge. I learned that this space did include a different variety of people, additions of documents of achievements and many more. I can say that I have learned a lot and that all of my few broad thoughts were answered.

Focused Built Environment Description 2 : Objective View

The site that I had to visit for my second Built Environment Description (BED) was the astonishing Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change (The King Center) that is located on Auburn Avenue in Atlanta Georgia. The king center is the historical cite about Martin Luther King which was established in 1968 by his dear and lovely wife Mrs. Coretta Scott King due to paying respects to his long-lasting legacy. It is open to the public seven days a week from the hours of 9am- 5pm. From the two hours that I spent at this beneficial and educational site I have learned and noticed many different things about this space. There are many detailed descriptions of this space but I tend to have focused on the people in the space and the astonishing educational facts with their artwork to help paint the overall picture about Martin Luther King and others within The Kings Center.


When describing The Kings Center’s (people in this space), there is a lot to note. The stereotype that most people say would be seen in this space is of course a mass majority of people of African American decent. With this being stated, it is interesting to note that based on my observations of this space this stereotype can be proven false. Surprisingly there are a lot of people who come and visit all throughout the time frame of 9am to 5pm (The Kings Center hours) from almost all different nationalities. There was a substantial huge wide spread of diversity between the people who come to visit this space. From my time, there I noticed and seen almost every nationality from just my two hours there. I saw African Americans, Caucasians, Asians, Hispanics, and a lot more of different nationalities at the King Center. In this space, you are also able to note the large number of tourists and groups that come there. During my time there I noticed about 7 large groups of kids on school field trips and some everyday tourists with pens and notebooks. With the kids in groups, I noticed they had different scavenger hunts that their teachers plan for them in the Kings Center that required them to go different places. As for the tourist, they each had leaders or tour guide leaders that described to them the astonishing facts about The King Center. Surprisingly, I got the opportunity to speak with one of the employees/ security guards there about the space. The security guard that talked me, name was Stephen and he has been a security guard at the King Center for 3 years. I asked him about the people that he sees that comes into the King Center and he stated,” A large variety of different people of different nationalities enter the space every day.”


When visiting, the Kings Center it is easy to note that this is a place/space that will be about the late great Martin Luther King, his family, and his movement in general.  The King Center is a two-story building that applies a great amount of facts and information about him and his contribution/legacy, as well as some other knowledge about Mahatma Gandhi, Rosa Parks and a lot of other African American during the American Civil Rights Movement. There is information about Martin’s and Coretta’s life before they knew of each other. It also contributed to show different amounts of art work that portrayed to different meanings. The king Center was a beautiful place of tying American history with art archives. For instance, there was a piece that had two hands with chains that were broken around them which symbolized Martin Luther King’s freedom speech. Not only that but this space also includes majority of all the awards that were won by the couple and different proclamations and laws that were signed because of their achievements. With this being stated, there was also artwork of his medals and achievements that helped visualize and understand the information a lot clearer. Also at this space there is Martin Luther King Jr. and Coretta Scott grave stock that is surrounded by beautiful clear blue water.


The King Center taught me a lot about built environment descriptions such as the people in the space and the amount of information there. The people there in this space range from all types of nationalities and the amount of information there has beautiful artwork there to resemble the facts.


Image one: Awards won by the couple         Image two: The freedom hands

Discussion Question Unit 2

Based off just reading the introduction for, Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces, by Kathleen G Scholl, Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi
I have accumulated some questions. In Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces, they suggest that the overall natural landscape of a colleges university is an learning resource for all students. Immediately one of my questions that I hope to find out when proceeding this reading is , why do they feel that the landscape of a university will have some effect on students learning resources?

Built Environment Description (Personal)

Visiting Cabbagetown I noticed a lot of things personally. Even though I had no prior knowledge about this town or its existence I did learn a lot about Cabbagetown. I interpreted a lot from this site. This site also made me question its importance and significance and had me acquire some mixed emotions about the community. Because of Cabbagetown I have expanded my knowledge more about Atlanta and its important sites. There are many ways in which I interpreted many first impressions and thoughts, emotions, and interpretations from the site of Cabbagetown.

Because I did no research or knew anything about Cabbagetown, going there I legit thought that Cabbagetown was a place with a lot of Cabbages on some type of field. As crazy as it may    sound I had no clue what to expect or what I was getting into. I was stuck between that impression and another one of mine. The other was an impression of Cabbagetown being a town or place for children to have fun. Something kind of like Chucky-E-Cheese or like another place where kids play. My friend and I walked to Cabbagetown from our dorm which was an HOUR and a half long walk which seemed like forever. During our walk, we noticed that the area we were heading to seemed very private. It was also very small. Not a lot was there but they did in fact have a park and some small corner end stores to make it appear larger. It looked like a lot of private property and it seemed if we were to step on the wrong side of the road we would have been in some major consequences. Once we actually reached the town we noticed how nice everyone was and also how accepting they were being towards us. So immediately once we got into the dead smack center of Cabbagetown my first impression of the town became a good one. I’m sure the people there could tell that we were not from Cabbagetown by the way my friend I were acting, but they still were very welcoming. At first this neighborhood did seem a little country but then as we continued our journey we found that there was a huge diversity in who lived there. My friend and I pointed out that almost all kinds of people lived in Cabbagetown. From just the hour and a half that we stayed there, we saw people of almost every race and nationality.  This opened my eyes and made Cabbagetown become a lot more enjoyable place for me to interpret.

When I first got to Cabbagetown I had a lot of mixed emotions. Mainly because I didn’t know how the people there were going to be and if just overall because of how the place was.  The emotions that I experienced the most at first was kind of a fearful. It was fearful because I had absolutely no idea of what I was about to get into. I had no knowledge whatsoever of this place. The main fear came from my thoughts on if the people there would like me as a person and if they were going to be welcoming of me and my friend. Turns out that in fact they were EXTREMLY welcoming and the town was nothing to be scared of or fearful at all. Once that emotion went away I started to get the emotion of pure happiness. Everyone that I personally met and talked to were all so nice that it legit seemed too good to be true. It felt as if I were in some sort of happy movie were everyone gets along with one another and nothing will go wrong because everyone LOVES EVERYONE. I found and thought that this place was a little too unreal but maybe there are just some small communities that do it.

Coming across Cabbagetown I had no idea what to expect. I was basically coming in there blindfolded because I had no information about its site or its importance/history. I have never ever heard of this place until then. Still to this day after visiting this site I do not have a lot of information or know a lot about it but I did gather some things together during the time I spent there. Like I stated earlier, Cabbagetown has a lot of welcoming people and some of these people were willing to speak with me on why they live in Cabbagtown and why they all love it so much. Basically, I was just trying to find out why it was so special. So, my friend and I went out of our way to ask some of the residents that we saw already on the streets some questions of our own. There was one resident that we spoke with who pretty much gave us some good information about Cabbagetown. Her name was Molly and she told us that Cabbagetown was one of the firsts towns that were built in Atlanta. We asked her why she is currently a resident there and she told us that she has lived there for all her life and that she loves the people there. Almost everyone we spoke with told us that they loved the people that lived their either because they were nice and very welcoming. It was clear to see that Cabbagetown in my eyes was a very culturally diverse community in which majority of the residents that lived there got along with each other.

Cabbagetown in my opinion is a beautiful place and I feel that everyone should at least visit it once or twice with their time down in Atlanta. It’s a very welcoming place the people are extremely nice, and it’s a neighborhood like none other. You can legit see the difference in the communities downtown Atlanta to ones in Cabbagetown. Because of my visit to Cabbagetown I have interpreted many thoughts, emotions, and interpretations about that site.


Built Environment Description (Objective View)

The site that I had to visit for my Built Environment Descriptions (BED) was the one and only lovely Cabbagetown. Cabbagetown is located on the east side of Atlanta. This particular site in Atlanta appeared to be a neighborhood from my understanding, with many objective descriptions that you can make an inference from.From my short time there, my friend and learned a lot about this location based off their people, its wild arrangements and the color, and traffic/walkways in this space.

There are many things to notice when describing the people in this space. The people at Cabbagetown seemed very happy. In this space, I noticed that almost everyone was outside doing something. Surprisingly when I went to this location on February 10th 2017, it was a beautiful outside. The high was around 73 degrees with a nice wind blow as if you were on the beach. Some were outside talking with neighbors, many walking their big and strong dogs, kids on bikes and scooters, and many just sitting on their long porched enjoying the day. With this being stated, instantly it reminded my friend and I of the kind of movies where everyone in the town or neighborhood was happy and that nothing could ever possibly go wrong within that town. Pretty much it appeared everyone knew of each other based off the many greetings that we encountered. They even greeted us from time to time, even though it was clear that we were not from their town or knew anything about their town. It also sparked my attention of hoe everyone in Cabbagetown loved their neighborhood. On almost all the houses and cars my friend and I noticed that I love Cabbagetown was somewhere on them. It was a sticker that literally said, “I heart Cabbagetown” almost everywhere. All we could pretty much conclude about the people here was that they really love their home, Cabbagetown.

As far as colors went, I can proudly say that Cabbagetown is a neighborhood that loves all colors. Walking into Cabbagetown one of the first things that I noticed was that Cabbagetown was very colorful and that it looked like a beautiful rainbow. The few color houses that stood out to me were bright yellowish-greenish, baby blue, royal pink, and a nice chic orange color. Also, the houses here was not like your everyday suburb houses. They each had many different unique designs, but a lot of the houses were one story houses. Majority of these designs seemed like they could’ve been designed by the people of Cabbagetown itself because, of how unique they were. Although they weren’t all the same color they were in fact very bright colors and eye catching. These houses were also very close to each other. Its seemed like they were just a couple inches apart from each other. My friend and I came to conclusion that might have been one of the reasons why so many people knew of each other in Cabbagetown, which was because their houses were so close to one another.

The walkway in Cabbagetown was very tight. Cabbagetwon is a small town and everything is really close together. There is also a lot of stuff in the streets. It kinds seems really cluttered once you go deeper into the neighborhood you can see a lot of stuff that seemed very vintage. I noticed a lot of metal in the streets. This metal seemed very old and rusted, but it gave the town an even more fancier look. Walking down the streets my friend and I noticed that there are a lot of one way streets. But almost going anywhere in Atlanta are one way streets so that wasn’t really all that surprising. What was surprising to me was that Cabbagetown looked like a neighborhood/town, and you don’t usually see one way streets in neighborhoods like that. There is also a park that Cabbagetown has which is called Cabbagetown Park.

Cabbagetown taught me a lot for my built environment descriptions. Even though I have never been there before and never heard of Cabbagetown I still obtained a lot of information about its people, color, and traffic/walkway space.